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An inscription on Hadrat Abû Bakr’s ring said: Ni’ma-l-qâdir Allah. Hadrat ’Umar’s ring had: Kefâ bi-l-mawt wâ’izan yâ ’Umar, and the one worn by Hadrat ’Uthmân said: Le-nasbiranna, while the inscription on Hadrat ’Alî’s ring said: el-mulk-u-lillah. The one on Hadrat Hasan’s ring said: al ’izzat-u-lillah, and Hadrat Mu’âwiya wore a ring with: Rabbighfir-lî. Ibni Abî Leylâ had a ring that said: ad-dunyâ gharûrun, Imâm-i-A’zam Abû Hanîfa had one that said: kul-il-khayr wa illâ feskut, while Imâm Abû Yusûf’s ring said: man ’amila bi-re’yihî nedima, the one worn by Imâm Muhammad read: man sabara zafira, and Imâm Shâfi’î wore one that said: al barakat-u-fi-l-qanâ’a. They used their ring as a seal. Seals used by Ottoman Rulers are called Tughra. Their tughra was not on their ring. The tughra was kept by a vizier specially charged with that duty. Each tughra contained the name of the Ruler that it belonged to inscribed on it, above it was the name of his father, and beneath it an inscription that read: al-muzaffer dâimâ. The earliest gold coin was minted during the reign of Sultân Orhân, the second Ottoman Ruler. Gold and silver coins minted at the behest of each Ruler (pâdishâh) had a tughra inscribed on the front face, and the name of the city wherein it was minted and the year of the Ruler’s julûs (accession to the throne) on the back. The final form of the tughra had its inception during the time of Sultân Mustafâ Khân the second.