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There are two types of kâfirs: The kâfir with a holy book, and the kâfir without a holy book. If a Muslim abandons his religion, he is called a “murtadd” (renegade, apostate). Ibn ’Âbidîn (rahimahullâhu ta’âlâ) wrote in the subject on ‘people not to be married due to polytheism’: “Renegades, mulhids, zindîqs, fireworshippers, those members of one of the seventy-two groups who are as excessive as to become disbelievers, people called [Brahmins, Buddhists,] Bâtinîs, Ibâhatîs and Durzîs (Druzes), idolaters, the ancient Greek philosophers and munâfiqs are all disbelievers without holy books. ” Communists and the freemasons also are disbelievers without holy books. Christians and Jews, who believe in revealed books which were later interpolated, are disbelievers with books.

If a disbeliever, with a holy book or without one, embraces Islam, he will escape going to Hell. He will become a sinless, innocent Muslim. But he has to become a Sunnî Muslim, that is, to read and learn the book of one of the ’ulamâ’ of Ahl as-Sunna and adapt his îmân, acts and words to what he thus learns. In the world it is understood from a person’s clear words and actions said and done without darûra (strong necessity or compulsion) if he is a Muslim or not. It becomes definite at a person’s last breath if he has gone to the next world with îmân. If a Muslim with grave sins repents for them, he or she will surely be forgiven and become a sinless, pure Muslim. It is explained in detail in ’ilm al-hâl books, for example, the book Endless Bliss, what repentance is and how it will be done.